When preparing Cannabis butter For example, there is no problem - the fat in the butter is easily attached to cannabinoids in the plant, so when the butter is eaten, their effect is felt.
But what do you do when you want to combine Cannabinoids In foods that are not based on oil, such as water, a cup of tea, or soft drinks?
Solubility is a known problem in the food and medicine industries and is solved by emulsion, which means the dispersion of so small particles of matter that they are able to integrate into another material that is not supposed to be mixed with it in principle.
But the process of emulsion becomes more complicated and expensive as smaller particles are required. This process is divided into 3 types, depending on particle size: macro-emulsions, micro-emulsions, and nano-emulsions.
Macro-emulsions are the simplest and common in the food industry. A good example of macro-emulsion is mayonnaise, which contains water and oil, two substances that do not mix, but are able to mix with the use of simple emulsifier - egg yolk.
Micro-emulsions are much more complicated and often require a mixture of 'more serious' substances, such as solvents or chemicals Surfactants. Because of the use of these materials, micro-emulsions are often not used in the food industry, but for the manufacture of detergents and pesticides.
NanoEmulsion is a relatively new method that decomposes matter into the smallest particles (nanoparticles). Unlike micro-emulsion, this method does not necessarily require the use of hazardous substances and has been gaining momentum in recent years both in the pharmaceutical industry and in the cannabis industry.
The cannabis companies that use nanomulsions in their products point to another advantage that they have - the nanobannabinoid particles not only mix better with the product but are also more readily absorbed in the consumer's body.
Therefore, unlike cannabinoids that are found in cannabis butter and need to reach the intestines so that they can be distributed to smaller particles that the body can absorb, nanocannabinoids are already small enough to be absorbed immediately.
It is not yet clear how much nano-cannabinoid intake improves absorption and / or strengthens the effect, but this does not prevent manufacturers of products such as'WHO CBD'To load up to 10 in absorption.
Nano-Emulsion is already used in the pharmaceutical industry, but its use in the food and beverage industry is new. Accordingly, new claims have recently been raised that cast doubt on the safety of food and beverages containing nanoparticles.
Unlike drugs, which usually consume no more than a pill or two a day, when it comes to food and beverage consumption may be much higher, and the effects of consuming nanoparticles over time have not yet been studied.
"Nanoparticles can penetrate many different types of tissues without our having any control over them," explains Dr. Richard Sayre, chief scientist of Travis Biosciences, the Canadian cannabis company.
In addition to the potential dangers of nanoparticles, he is also concerned about the residues of emulsion in the product - the emulsifiers used to perform the nanomulsion.
Dr. Sayer's company uses a whole new technology to make their cannabinoids dissolve in water. Through a process called glycosylation, they bind sugar molecules to cannabinoid molecules, making them soluble.
Dr. Sayer's warnings are easy to dismiss on the grounds that they are slanderous by a competing company, but he is not the only one to warn.
Report A comprehensive OECD study on this subject, entitled "The Opportunities and Risks of Nanotechnology," also mentioned potential hazards.
"Certain resistant nanoparticles may accumulate in the body, especially in the lungs, brain, and liver," the report said, warning that it is still not known whether nanoparticles can pass from a pregnant woman's body to the fetus in her womb.
Anubhav Pratap Singh, assistant professor of food systems at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Canada, agrees that people should be aware of the dangers of nanoparticles.
Singh, who himself studies nanomoleculation, said that nanoparticles that are too small in size less than 2 nanometers can penetrate human tissue and accumulate inside organs if they are not properly secreted.
"This is a subject that requires further clinical trials," he says. "At the moment there are no regulations in the field because it is so new. More rigorous testing of these products is required, especially if the particle size is less than 20 nanometers. "
The Department of Employment and Social Development in the Canadian Government (ESDC) identified the work with nanoparticles as occupational risk, saying that "although there is very little information about the potential effects of exposure to nanoparticles in humans, the existing literature on the subject points to a causal link between Exposure to nanoparticles and negative health effects. "
But despite the potential dangers of nanocannabinoids, Dr. Singh points out that consumers should be more concerned about things that have already been proven beyond any doubt as dangerous, such as Mold in cannabis. "The microbial, chemical, and toxicological safety of the product itself is a greater concern," he says.