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A guide to preparing a mop (compost) at home

Why is it recommended to add compost to any growing cannabis and why is it always better to use self-produced compost? This is how to prepare a high quality fertilizer that will give the plant everything it needs to thrive and flourish - without any use of chemicals. Instructions.

compost Is a rich organic fertilizer produced by the decomposition of organic substances by bacteria and other microorganisms, or in less gentle words - manure.

This excellent garbage is mixed with the soil, enriching the soil with essential elements. The compost also improves soil texture so that it is more airy, helps maintain balanced acidity, helps reduce the concentration of salts in the substrate and is an addition of good bacteria in soil.

In the market there are a variety of types of compost ready for purchase in nurseries or In growing stores And the price is even quite cheap and stands at about 15 NIS per bag weighing 25 liters. They also promise to enrich the substrate with essential nutrients, but the truth is that anyone who has a garden, yard or other open area can make his own compost no less than the remnants of organic manure.

But first of all let us examine why it is worthwhile to do this little stinking work (nevertheless, a lot of preoccupation with garbage and feces ...)

Hand with compost
Compost will be brown and black with a crumbling texture

Why prepare compost at home?

There are a number of advantages to composting at home, the most prominent of which are:

  • Price and Availability - Preparing home compost is an activity that involves almost no economic expenses.
  • Quality of compost - Properly prepared compost can be used as an organic fertilizer of the highest quality, in many cases to a level that is no less than the compost offered in nurseries and sometimes even surpasses it.
  • Environment - Certain organic materials can become a serious environmental hazard and pollute the soil if they are dumped in landfills (due to methane gas emissions). The conversion of wet waste into compost may reduce about half of the domestic waste produced in Israel.

Beyond that, it can be said that composting from organic waste is a kind of "closure of the life cycle" in which we reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and work symbiosis with nature rather than against the natural course of things.

What do you need to prepare compost?

  • Container, raft or fence - The composting process is always carried out in an open area outside the house, but the demarcation of the place is important for maintaining order and cleanliness and to prevent animals from coming into contact with the material.
  • Wet waste (nitrous oxide) - kitchen waste such as: residues of fruits and vegetables, eggshells, residues of food and dishes, coffee residues, tea and all that is natural waste. It is also possible to add residues of animal food (meat, fish, eggs and dairy products). However, it should be taken into account that these ingredients have a much longer cooking time and will increase the cooking time of the compost. In addition, there is a concern that if certain compost areas have not been properly cooked, the fertilizer may contain pathogens that are harmful to the plant.
  • composting-bins
    Various options stack the compost
  • Garden manure (carbonaceous material) - leaves that have fallen, thin pruning, weeds, straw hay and sawdust.

Other materials that can be added to the mixture: fire ash and animal manure (recommended for speeding up the process). Diversified waste from a number of different sources may improve the quality of the fertilizer obtained. Keep in mind that small components break down at a faster rate, so it is recommended to break large pieces of debris into as little pieces as possible.

Composting - the transformation of organic materials into compost

In the process of composting, the organic components that we threw into the pile dissolve and emit carbon dioxide, water and energy. This process is called "breathing" or "oxidation" and will leave behind high quality fertilizer free from seeds, pathogens and unwanted odors.

In order for the computation to occur properly, some necessary conditions must be observed:

Heat - During breathing, microorganisms produce energy, part of which is routed to the activity of the living cell, and the rest is emitted in the form of heat up to about 80 ° C.

humidity - Most of the microorganisms in the process are bacteria that require a certain moisture to function properly and therefore make sure that the pile will always be damp. On the other hand, keep in mind that these creatures also need oxygen to continue to exist, and to this end, the stack must always be ventilated and porous in order to allow sufficient oxygen to enter. A standard mark for an ideal humidity level would be to insert a finger into the pile - it should feel like a squeezed sponge (moist to the touch but not saturated with water). In addition, the smell - if the compost pile is too moist, in most cases it will cause a certain stench due to other bacteria that have reached the area.

Composte bin inside
A look at the contents of the compost inside

Carbon ratio: Nitrogen - The various materials that are inserted into the compost contain mostly one or another amount of carbon and nitrogen. The best balance for good composting would be 1: carbon nanomass (each particle of nitrogen should be carbon nanotubes). Too much nitrogen can cause unpleasant odors to propagate, but too much carbon can significantly reduce the rate of decomposition. It is difficult to know exactly what the composition of each material is, of course, but in general it can be said that "green" materials such as kitchen waste, pruned grass and animal manure contain large amounts of nitrogen and brown materials such as dry leaves, sawdust, straw, newspapers and ashes Bonfire - contain large amounts of carbon. Since the carbon content of the brown materials is higher than the nitrogen content in the green materials, the practice is to balance the components so that the compost pile will always have more or less the same amount of brown and green materials.

Composting stage

Stage 1 (the Mazophiliac phase) - At the beginning of the road (24-48 first hours) the pile of compost will rise to a temperature of 40-50 ° C. At this point, the zygophyllus bacteria (bacteria living in heat conditions of 20 to 40 ° C) will disintegrate the easier organic compounds for breakdown.

Step Two (The Thermophilic Stage) - At this stage the temperature in the compost pile increases to 60 to 80 ° C, leaving only thermophilic bacteria that can survive in these difficult conditions. This is a necessary step because at this time all the seeds, spores and toxic pathogens are sterilized and destroyed.

Third stage (ripening) - The rate of decay of the organic materials decreases at this stage, along with the temperature in the pile. This allows new populations of microorganisms to develop in the area and the compost itself is already a kind of odorless, ready-to-use powder.

How to "cook" the compost?

Compost cooking is a process that hardly requires intervention by the grower. However, in order to achieve ideal conditions, there are a number of important points which should be observed:

Build the stack - Keeping a certain order and pattern while composting the components of the compost will contribute significantly to high quality cooking: In the first layer, it is recommended to distribute 10-20 centimeters of coarse pruning or any other material with airy properties that will allow good drainage and efficient ventilation at the bottom of the pile. The next layer will be of brown / dry material and above it, green / wet material, and so forth. Note that the upper layer will always end with dry materials because exposed green components may smell unpleasant and attract unwanted animals.

soil_compost_diagram
An example of the compost layer

Maintain moisture - The organisms engaged in decomposition of the compost need a certain level of moisture to function, so check the level of moisture in the pile and make sure to irrigate if necessary.

Mix the stack - Although the composting process will be performed without any human intervention, it is customary to mix the pile in order to speed up the maturation. The main idea of ​​mixing the pile is to ensure efficient ventilation of the compost, which will ensure that all the components are decomposed uniformly. Some are careful to mix the heap throughout the ripening process (from the beginning of the layers to the full ripening), while others tend to mix less frequently. The mixing can be done with a shovel or a knocker, when it is important to ensure that the elements in the stacked walls and bottoms reach the center. If this is a small diameter container it is recommended to turn it all upside down.

How do you know that compost is ready?

The timing of maturation of the compost depends on a number of factors, such as: the ingredients themselves, the ripening conditions, the treatment method, etc. However, in most cases stacking at an average size of one meter by one meter will reach full ripening within 12-16 weeks.

Signs for the identification of a prepared compost: It will be brownish-black, with a crumbling texture that can hardly be seen from its original ingredients and can not be picked up with a pitchfork. In terms of smell compost is supposed to spread the aromas of the soil is contaminated.

Composting application in cultivation

Once the compost has matured, it is ready for application in the growing process. You can do this by:

Plastering - Dissolving the mixture and covering it with the upper layers of the soil.

Mixing with soil - The compost can be mixed in the soil at a ratio of 1: 1 / 1: 2 / 1: 3. A higher content of compost will result in increased activity in the growth medium, but at the same time will affect additional soil parameters such as texture and acidity. For this reason, it is recommended to use a low dose (one quarter of the soil) the first time you work with compost and increase the amount in subsequent cycles depending on the reaction of the plants.

Tea compost - Soaking the compost mixture in water to form Liquid irrigation mix Rich in nutrients and bacteria essential to the soil.

Watch a video tutorial on composting:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_lEHIymkcU

see also:
Aquaponics: Aquaculture and fish farming
Guide to making compost tea
Guano will blow up the ganja


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